All Bed Bugs mate via a process termed traumatic insemination. Instead of inserting their genitalia into the female’s reproductive tract as is typical in copulation, makes instead pierce females with hypodermic genitlia and ejaculate into the body cavity. This form of mating is thought to have evolved as a way for makes to overcome females in terms of physical damage and increases risk of infection. To reduce these costs females have evolved internal and external ‘paragential’ structures collectively known as the ‘spermalege’. Some bedbugs species make use of a mating-plug, secreted by t he male upon withdrawal after bug fornication, effectively sealing the vaginal area of the female to protect against other males
Remarkably, in the genus Afrocimex both males and females possess functional external paragenitalia, and males have been found with copulatory scars and the ejaculate of other males in their haemolymph. There is a widespread misbelief that makes inseminated by other males will in turn pas the sperm of both themselves and their assailants onto females with whom they mate. While it is true that males are known to mate with and inject sperm into other males, there is however no evidence to suggest that this sperm ever fertilizes females inseminated by the victims of such acts.
Restrictions to Bed Bug Reproduction
In a natural controlled conditions, traumatic insemination was frequent and temporally restricted. It has been shown for the first time, to our knowledge, that traumatic insemination results in last-male sperm precedence, suboptimal remating frequencies for the maintenance of female fertility, and reduced longevity and reproductive success in females. When the females are experimental they do not receive indirect benefits from multiple mating. In conclusion that traumatic insemination is probably a coercive male copulatory strategy that results in a sexual conflict of interests.
These days there has been a shift away from the view that the sexes share a common goal during reproduction and a move toward the concept that males and females are often in conflict over reproductive outcomes. Sexual conflict occurs due to the potentially different fitness optima for each sex resulting from copulation, such as conflicts over isogamous and anisogamous reproduction, copulation duration and mating frequency, and relative parental investment. Conflicts may arise when copulation is costly to one partner (usually the female), due to adaptations in the male that are associated with sperm competition.
Capacity of Bed Bug Reproduction
Female bed bugs have the ability to lay up to five eggs a day, allowing up to 500 eggs in a life time. Meaning the bed bug eggs must be treated as well in order to eliminate the infestation. Using products that contain IGR (Insect Growth Regulator), IGR does not destory nor kill the eggs but prevents them from being able to reproduce. Use Gentrol IGR Bed Bug Aerosol Sparyor Gentrol IGR Liquid Concentrate along cracks and crevices, baseboards, floors, ceilings, walls, under beds, closets (do not spray on bedings or the mattress) while treating bed bug infestation. There are non residual sprays such as Steri Fab that can be used to treat the mattress and will not irrate the skin. The eggs are visible to the naked eye measuring 1 mm in length and are a milky- white tone. The eggs are ready to hatch in one to two weeks. The hatchlings begin feeding immediately. They pass through five molting stages before they reach maturity. They must feed once during each of these stages. At room teperature its takes only about five weeks for a bedbug to pass from hatching to maturity. They become reproductively active only at maturity.
To control both adult bed bugs and their eggs use one of the kits provided:
If you would like to just Purchase the IGR by itself used the products recommended above:
|Eco Keeper Bed Bug Monitor and Glue Trap|